Type 2 diabetes
With the increase in lifestyle diseases in the past century,
diabetes has become a scourge affecting millions of people around the world. It
has, at one point during our lifetimes been declared the bio-calamity of the
century. But what really is this diabetes and why does it send shivers down the
medical world’s spine?
Diabetes is a condition majorly brought about by the
inability of the body to handle sugar levels, in the form of glucose. This is
majorly the task of the hormone insulin whose deficiency within the blood
brings about the condition. Therefore, diabetes is majorly a hormonal issue
whose ripple effects severely affect the body’s operation. Though we are mostly
going to focus on the type 2 diabetes within this article, it is vital to
mention a thing or two about type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes
This is majorly the �inherited’ type of diabetes where the
patient has an overactive autoimmune system. So overactive is this autoimmune.
system that the pancreas is limited, by the body itself, from producing
insulin. This leaves the blood with little or no insulin which in turn affects.
the blood sugar levels.
Type 2 Diabetes
This type of diabetes is the most common one amongst
patients of this condition. It majorly occurs under two circumstances:
Insulin Resistance- this is where the pancreas produces
enough insulin for the body but the cells don’t use it up well.
Also, the pancreas may produce insulin, but it is not enough
for the sugar levels of your body
Several years of investigation into genes and their
formation reveals a pattern within the DNA that drastically affects insulin
production. These types of chromosomal patterns within the DNA are majorly
hereditary and mutated.
� Liver Malfunction
One of the core functions of the liver is glucose regulation
within the blood. If a person has low blood sugar levels, the liver usually
increases the glucose levels from its storage mechanisms. The liver may
therefore malfunction in patients by increasing the sugar levels within the blood
even if the blood has enough sugar levels (especially after eating). This will
greatly increase the quantity of sugar levels than what the insulin can handle.
� Body Weight
Being overweight, also referred to as obesity, can cause
increased chances for insulin resistance. Childhood obesity increases chances
of type 2 diabetes as well in children who are not active enough physically. It
is vital to note that weight in certain areas of your body, such as your
abdomen region i.e. above the waist and below the shoulders increases your
insulin resistance by a higher chance.
� Cellular malfunction
Sometimes communication between cells may be broken such
that message signaling and reception between different cells may be incorrect.
If this signal affects the production or usage of insulin, the blood sugar
levels are affected and in turn this may lead to diabetes
� Broken beta cells
Beta cells refer to the bodily cells tasked with insulin
production. If there is a malfunction within these cells such that inadequate insulin
is produced and released to the blood, sugar levels can spiral out of control
thereby causing diabetes.
It is also vital to note that high blood sugar levels often
damage the beta cells which in turn affect insulin production as well.
Type 2 diabetes is like a ticking time bomb that is
virtually silent. It is sometimes referred to as the silent killer because its
symptoms are mild and most people don’t notice them at times until it is too
late. Such symptoms include:
� Body dehydration that often leaves the patient
feeling thirsty. The dehydration also causes the skin to peel especially on the
� Feeling tired often.
� Being highly irritable
� A lot of peeing i.e. passing an unusually large
amount of urine that is often dark-colored and smelly.
� Recurring bodily wounds that are sometimes
plagues by yeast infections.
� High irritability
� Blurry vision
� Feeling of numbness in the feet and hands.
Risk factors and
These are the pointers to what would be a diabetic future
and what one should avoid as much as possible.
� Growing old.
This is an unavoidable risk factor. The older one gets, the
easier it is to have insulin production issues.
� Family History i.e. genetics.
If your lineage has history of diabetes, then one is more
likely to get the condition compared to others.
� Health conditions
This includes medical conditions such as
· High Blood Pressure
· Heart and blood vessels diseases such as
· High cholesterol levels
· Prediabetes (where the glucose levels are not
normal but also not high enough to cause diabetes)
· Being overweight
· Acanthosis nigricans (skin condition)
� Lifestyle choices
Choices that one makes on a daily basis also pose as risk
factors for instance:
· Little or no exercise
· Poor diet
· Too little or too much sleep
To avoid exposure to diabetes, the following are steps one
� Maintain a healthy body weight
Ensure at no point of your life does your weight become too
much. Keeping your weight in check reduces your chances of developing diabetes
by up to half.
� Exercise enough and maintain an active lifestyle
Exercising generally keeps your body in shape and makes use
of your muscles. Muscles actively use insulin during rigorous activity.
� Eat right
Eat balanced diets with enough water and vegetables. Avoid
processed foods, trans and saturated fats and soft drinks. Also, reduce intake
of red meat.
� Quit smoking
Good oxygenated environment within your body minimizes risk
� Avoid stress
Smile, be happy and avoid emotional distress. This will keep
your blood pressure regulated.
It is vital that if you suspect you have diabetes you
consult with your doctor. Three major tests prove the existence of the
condition within your body and these include:
� A1C- tests your average sugar levels from 2 or 3
� Fasting plasma glucose- test your blood sugar
levels on an empty stomach
� Oral glucose tolerance tests- tests blood sugar
levels after high intake of sugar to determine how your body handles sugar.
These tests, coupled up with doctors’ consultation can
manage levels of diabetes to normalcy. It is vital to understand that having
that condition does not mean the end of life, follow your doctor’s instructions
and you will live a long, fruitful life.